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战争与发明  

2008-05-27 13:40:35|  分类: 外语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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战争与发明 - 祥子 - 21世纪安防弱电在线
2008-5-27
 Rachel有约  

战争与发明 - 祥子 - 21世纪安防弱电在线

战争与发明 - 祥子 - 21世纪安防弱电在线
 English Kaleidoscope
www.webi.com.cn/ilove/mm.asp

Bad Wars, Great Inventions

糟糕的战争,伟大的发明

      我们通常不会谈论战争的好处。的确,战争积极的一面通常会完全地被它所带来巨大的伤亡人数所掩盖。据估计,第二次世界大战的总死亡人数达到了7200万人。尽管如此,战争还是带来了一些好处。我并不是指由于政权剧变而带来的经济收益,我指的是物质上的收获!以下所有从战场的废墟中显露的技术进步即使不是日常的家庭用品,他们的名字也已是家喻户晓。

二战??雷达

      用此项技术做实验的科学家们发现通讯会被一些物质打断。然而,直到大不列颠之战时,才真正开始了“无线电波之战”。由于双方都尝试侦察对方的技术,许多间谍活动开始出现。除了德国先进的技术,英国的沃森瓦特将这一技术应用到战争中,用以鉴别敌机并让战斗机加以拦截。随着隐形轰炸机的发展,雷达战时至今日仍然十分盛行,这都是由于雷达表面的吸收剂能够在某一角度弹回波信号。

和平时期雷达的使用:

1.   协调作用。从机场到航行,任何事物都能加以协调。

2.   通过明确降雨量来预报天气。

3.   追踪动物的迁徙。

4.   美国国家航天航空局通过雷达确保在航天飞机发射时,没有鸟卷入其中。

5.   感应超速驾车者。

冷战??微波炉

      微波炉是由战斗英雄及科学家培西?史宾赛偶然发现的。史宾赛注意到当他站地靠近磁电管(雷达装置的一部分)时,他口袋里的花生和巧克力就会融化。史宾赛开始了实验,他将爆米花和生鸡蛋放在这个装之前并观察他们。史宾赛生产了第一个微波炉,价格很昂贵,要750英镑,这个微波炉有五英尺高。很快,微波炉风靡起来,现在几乎每家的厨房里都要微波炉。

二战??强力胶

      哈利库弗在二战的时候发明了强力胶。库弗那时想要找到一种物质来生产塑料枪。事实证明强力胶完全不适合这项任务,它能黏住接触到的任何东西。现在90%的家庭拥有一支丙烯酸树脂基粘结剂(502胶水)。

用途:

1.   用于密封

2.   保护登山者手指上的皮肤。

3.   用于法医学。

4.   木材涂装。

二战??青霉素

      亚历山大弗莱明在二战后没多久就发现了青霉素。以前治疗伤者及感染者的唯一途径就是使用有腐蚀性的化学药物,这在毁灭细菌的同时也使人遭到损害,弗莱明对此十分惊恐。在青霉素发现后的几年后,青霉素成为了物价之宝,但是想要治愈一个人,巨大的青霉素需求量通常得不到满足。然而,在(第二次世界大战中)盟国在西欧登陆日后,同盟军的巨大努力确保了获得大剂量的青霉素成为了可能。那是在1943年,在青霉素发现后的十二年后。

      这些发明都有强大的财政支持它们的研究,还有来自“敌人”的激烈竞争;这促成了战争双方在科学上的相互合作。那么在最近的战争中,比如阿富汗战争和伊拉克战争中,我们获得了什么益处呢? 

Not often do we talk about the benefits of war. Indeed the positive effects are often and rightly completely overshadowed by huge casualty figures. The total death toll of WWII alone is estimated at 72 million people. Despite this however great things do come of war. I am not referring to regime upheavals of economic benefits but material goods! All of the following technological advancements that emerged from the dust of battlefields are household names if not household items.

Radar - WWII

Scientists had been experimenting with this technology having noticed communications interrupted by objects. However it was not until the Battle of Britain, that the “Battle of the Beams” truly began. Huge espionage campaigns began as each side tried to discover the others technology. Despite Germany's superior technology Britain with Watson-Watt transformed the technology into a working network that could identify enemy planes approaching fighters to intercept. The radar battle still rages today with the development of Stealth bombers, which avoid detection due to a radar absorbent surface and by bouncing radar beams off at angles.

Peacetime Radar Uses:

Co-ordinate everything from airports to cruise liners

Predict weather by locating precipitation

Track migration patterns of animals

NASA use radar to ensure no birds are caught underneath a shuttle launch!

Catch speeding motorists

Microwave Oven - Cold War

The microwave oven was a discovered by accident by war hero and scientist Percy Spencer. Spencer noticed that the peanut and chocolate bar in his pocket melted when he stood close to a magnetron, (part of a radar set). Spencer experimented placing popcorn kernels and raw eggs in front of the device and observed them exploding. Spencer manufactured the first microwave oven, weighing in at an impressive 750 pounds and over five feet tall. Soon the microwave oven caught on and now can be found in almost every kitchen!

Superglue - WWII

Superglue was discovered by Harry Coover during WWII. Coover was trying to find a material to produce plastic gun sites with. Superglue proved completely unsuited to the task, as it stuck to everything it came into contact with. Now 90% of family homes possess a tube of Cyanoacrylates. 

Uses:

Sealing wounds

Protecting skin of climbers fingers

Forensic science

Wood finish

Penicillin - WWII

Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin shortly after WWI. Fleming had been dismayed that the only way to treat wounded and infected man was by using caustic chemicals, which also damaged the man, not just the bacteria. For years after its discovery Penicillin was priceless and was not available in a large enough quantity to cure a man. However in the build up to D-day, huge efforts by the allies insured that large enough quantities became available. This was 1943, twelve years after its discovery!

These inventions are pushed by hugely increased finance for research and the intense competition from the "enemy"; this forces scientific collaboration within each side during wars. What benefits will we see emerging from current war zones such as Afghanistan and Iraq?

▲Top   Live and Learn

战争与发明 - 祥子 - 21世纪安防弱电在线恋爱物语

在别人眼中,他(她)是你的另一半

your better half

例句:"Remember to come to my wedding ceremony and introduce your better half to me."

“记得来参加我的婚礼啊,顺便介绍我认识你家那位。”

Hi-English往期回顾

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